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LANGUAGE FOCUS
Phonetics
Stress patterns: compound nouns and noun groups:
'Greenhouse, light 'house, 'answering machine ...
Grammar


- Gerunds and infinitives
You can use a backup to retrieve your data in the event malfunction.
Blankets are needed for keeping warm since heating is no use.
- The present perfect
He has left three messages on my answering machine but I'm not home, so please tell him to call me at my grandparents' house.
Vocabulary
Words and phrases related to inventions
economical, patent...


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Bài tập luyện tập

I. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.
1. A. economical         B. laptop                      C. collapse                   D. obvious
2. A. interested            B. processed                C. compounded           D. extended
3. A. Velcro                B. consume                 C. telephone                D. composer
4. A. invention            B. patent                      C. portable                   D. imitate
5. A. principles            B. headphones             C. earbuds                   D. contests
II. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
1. A. bulky                  B. tablet                       C. release                     D. fabric
2. A. portable              B. submarine               C. principle                  D. imitate
3. A. automatic            B. accidential               C. discovery                D. innovation
4. A. innovative           B. development           C. original                   D. experiment

5. A. popularity           B. manufacturer           C. technological          D. imagination

IV. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following sentences.
1. In 1886 in the United States, a pharmacist named Dr. John Pemberton tried to invent a medicine because he wanted a cure for ____.
A. headache                B. headaches               C. a headache              D. the headaches
2. Both inventors and engineers look for ways to improve things in areas like health, food, safety, transportation, aerospace, electronics, ____, and the environment.
A. communication       B. communicative       C. communicator         D. communicating
3. The European Patent Convention, which was implemented in 1977, created a European Patent Office that can issue ____ European patent.
A. a                             B. an                            C. the                           D. no article
4. The first American ____ the propelling of a boat by steam was William Henry, a gunsmith of Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
A. attempt                    B. to attempt                C. attempting               D. attempted
5. ____ with the internet, which is a system of linked computer networks, the worldwide web was invented by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee.
A. Not to confuse        B. Not to be confused                         C. To be not confused             D. Confused not to be
6. The carbon dioxide gas given ____ by the fermenting vat was known as "fixed air".
A. off                           B. away                       C. out                          D. up
7. In 1772, Priestley published ____ description of how to make carbonated water, using sulphuric acid and chalk.
A. an                           B. its                            C. a                              D. each
8. Priestley found he could dissolve the gas in the water and that it ____ a refreshing drink - of a kind that met the approval of his clean-living, religious-minded friends.
A. makes                     B. made                       C. has made                 D. was made
9. ____ was Giovanni Luppis, an officer in the army of the Austrian empire, who first came up with the idea of a self-propelled anti-ship weapon.
A. That                        B. There                      C. It                             D. He
10. The bicycle as we know it today was originally developed as the "safety bicycle", because other bikes ____ were extremely dangerous.
A. at the time               B. at a time                  C. for a time                D. for the time
11. Charles Macintosh, an amateur chemist, was experimenting with coal-tar naphtha, a chemical waste product, and realized that it was a powerful solvent that ____ a solution from rubber.
A. will make                B. would made            C. can make                D. could make
12. The invention of the telephone ____ the beginning of a new era in communication technology.
A. mark                       B. marks                      C. marked                    D. marking
13. It is the classical Athenians who can probably lay claim ____ the invention of commercial advertising as we know it today.
A. to                            B. for                           C. of                            D. with
14. Ever ____ the invention of the hydrogen bomb, attempts have been made to harness the power of nuclear fusion for peaceful purposes.
A. from                        B. since                       C. with                                    D. for
15. The late 1800s and early 1900s ____ excitement over a wide array of inventions and developments.
A. brought                   B. have brought           C. used to bring           D. would bring
16. The invention of printing on paper provided a technology ____ which information could be stored over the long term.
A. under                      B. with                        C. for                           D. in
17. In the late 1970s, James Dyson designed a bagless vacuum cleaner which would not lose suction as it ____ up dirt.
A. picks                       B. picked                     C. is picking                D. was picking
18. Since it was invented, the Dyson vacuum cleaner ____ one of the most popular brands in the UK.
A. becomes                 B. have become           C. has become             D. became
19. Throughout History Inventions ____ the world and the lives of people many times through history.
A. change                    B. have changed          C. will change             D. had changed
20. Vinton G. Cerf founded the InterNetworking Group in 1972 and this ____ the birth-year of the Internet.
A. has been since recognized as                                  B. has been recognized since as
C. has since been recognized as                                  D. has since been as recognized
21. The earliest computers were developed during World War II for processing ballistic numbers and numeric analytics, but the thought of having machines ____ difficult mathematics can be traced back to England in the years around 1800.
A. calculate                 B. calculating              C. calculated                D. to calculate
22. Some inventions make bigger impact on the public than ____, and some inventions quickly become part of everyday life.
A. another                   B. other                       C. the other                  D. others
23. Chemical engineer, Doctor Robert G Bryant works for NASA's Langley Research Center and ____ numerous inventions.
A. patents                    B. has patented            C. is patented               D. has been patented
24. A patent invention is protected by law ____ only particular people or companies have the right to make or sell it.
A. in order for             B. in order to               C. so that                     D. such that
25. Ever since the first prehistoric stone tools, ____ have lived in a world shaped by invention.
A. human                    B. humans                   C. humanity                 D. humankind
26. In the course of ____ why suction pumps would lift water only about 9 metres, Evangelista Torricelli identified air pressure and invented the barometer.
A. investigate              B. investigation           C. investigating           D. investigated
27. The key ____ inventive success often requires being in the right place at the right time.
A. for                           B. of                            C. in                            D. to
28. An invention developed ____ one purpose will sometimes find use in entirely different circumstances.
A. in                            B. with                        C. by                           D. for
29. A: "What do you think is the invention that has changed the world?"
      B: “____”
A. You see. Everything can be changed.                                B. I think, the light bulb by Edison.
C. None of such things should be considered.                        D. The world must be changing fast.
30. A: "The Internet is the greatest invention of all time, isn't it?"
      B: “____”
A. I don't think so, many other inventions have really changed our life.
B. Yes, the Internet helps us buy things we need online.
C. Sure, the number of netizens is growing larger and larger every day.
D. Actually, I don't use the Internet much for my business.

V. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following sentences.
1. It was not until 1959, twenty-one years after Carlson invented xerography, that the first convenient office copier using xerography was unveiled.
A. Known                   B. published                C. popular                   D. common
2. The first American to propel a boat by steam successfully was John Fitch. Fitch was a frequent visitor at the home of Henry, and probably got the idea of building a steamboat from him.
A. make                       B. drive                       C. board                      D. launch
3. It's hard to credit just one person with the invention of television, but it's indisputable that John Logie Baird was the first to transmit moving pictures.
A. without doubt         B. questionable            C. always true                         D. permanent truth
4. Inventor, a person who brings ideas or objects together in a novel way to create an invention, something that did not exist before.
A. practical                  B. interesting               C. traditional                D. unusual
5. As industry and commerce have become increasingly global in character, pressure has increased to harmonize patent systems.
A. balance                   B. standardize              C. popularize               D. develop
VI. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following sentences.
1. Inventors are skilled at spotting ways to improve a situation or process.
A. Inventors are keen on spotting ways to improve a situation or process.
B. Inventors are practical in spotting ways to improve a situation or process.
C. Inventors are well-known for spotting ways to improve a situation or process.
D. Inventors are professionally trained to spot ways to improve a situation or process.
2. Scientists and inventors have made significant contributions to the lives of the common people.
A. Significant contributions have been made by scientists and inventors to the live of the common people.
B. Scientists and inventors had contributed significantly to the lives of the common people.
C. The lives of the common people have been significantly constructed by scientists and inventors.
D. The contributions which scientists and inventors made to the lives of the common people was significant.
3. Shockley's book describes the research leading to the invention of the transistor.
A. Shockley's book is a means of describing the invention of the transistor.
B. It is the invention of the transistor that is described in Shockley's book.
C. The research leading to the invention of the transistor is described in Shockley's book.
D. A description of the research leading to the invention of the transistor makes Shockley's book.
4. The more often ideas come together, the more frequently invention occurs.
A. Whenever more ideas come together, it comes to the occurrence of inventions.
B. The number of inventions that occur increases when a number of ideas come together.
C. It is only when more ideas come together that inventions occur more frequently.
D. The frequency of invention occurrence is decided by how often ideas come together.
5. Watt spent much time and money in making experiments, but nothing he tried succeeded.
A. Although Watt spent much time and money in making experiments, nothing he tried succeeded.
B. Despite his failure after trial and trial, Watt spent much time and money in making experiments.
C. As Watt spent too much time and money in making experiments, nothing he tried succeeded.
D. If Watt hadn't spent much time and money in making experiments, anything he tried would have succeeded.
VII. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences given.
1. Engineering is a process for developing solutions to problems. Inventing is a process for creating things that didn't exist before.
A. The difference between Engineering and Inventing lies in the process they are conducted.
B. Engineering finds solutions to problem, while inventing creates things not ever existing.
C. Engineering focuses on developing solutions to problems, but inventing centers on creating new things.
D. The result of engineering is the development of solutions to problems, but that of inventing is the creation of new things.
2. Inventors' and engineers' initial ideas rarely solve a problem. Instead, they try different ideas, learn from mistakes, and try again.
A. Instead of trying to solve a problem, inventors' and engineers' initial ideas are to try different ideas, learn from mistakes, and try again.
B. Rarely do inventors' and engineers' initial ideas solve a problem rather than try different ideas, learn from mistakes, and try again.
C. Because inventors' and engineers' initial Ideas rarely solve a problem, they try different ideas, learn from mistakes, and try again.
D. Even though inventors' and engineers' initial ideas rarely solve a problem, they try different ideas, learn from mistakes, and try again.
3. The story of each invention is interwoven with that of the life of its inventor. The lives of inventors furnish materials of the highest educative value.
A. The story of each invention is interwoven with that of the life of its inventor, whose lives furnish materials of the highest educative value
B. The story of each invention is interwoven with that of the life of its inventor, because his/her life furnishes materials of the highest educative value.
C. The story of each invention is interwoven with materials of the highest educative value furnished by the life of its inventor.
D. Materials of the highest educative value furnished by the life of the inventor are interwoven with the story of each invention.
4. Michael Faraday was employed by the Royal Institution. There, he investigated the connections between electricity, magnetism and motion.
A. Michael Faraday was employed by the Royal Institution, where he investigated the connections between electricity, magnetism and motion.
B. When Michael Faraday was employed by the Royal Institution, he investigated the connections between electricity, magnetism and motion.
C. The Royal Institution employed Michael Faraday to investigate the connections between electricity, magnetism and motion.
D. After he investigated the connections between electricity, magnetism and motion, Michael Faraday was employed by the Royal Institution.
5. Dr. Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven. The invention happened by accident.
A. Dr. Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven as an accident.
B. The microwave oven was Dr. Percy Spencer's accidental invention.
C. The invention of the microwave oven by Dr. Percy Spencer was an accident.
D. Dr. Percy Spencer's invention of the microwave oven was made in an accident.

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